Bhubneswar

The history of Bhubaneswar may be viewed in terms of ancient and modern eras. The ancient city has a history of thousands of years, while the modern city emerged in 1948.[6]

Bhubaneswar's first mention was during the Kalinga War, which took place near Dhauli (now in the south of the city) in the 3rd century BCE. Later Emperor Kharavela established his capital at Sisupalgarh, on the outskirts of the modern city. The Hathigumpha inscriptions at the Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves by Kharavela give a good account of that period, which is estimated as 1st–2nd century BCE. Temples built throughout the ancient and medieval periods chronicle the city's history.

Jain and Buddhist shrines portray the settlements around Bhubaneswar in the first two centuries BCE. One of the most complete edicts of the Mauryan emperor, Ashoka, dating from between 272–236 BCE, remains carved in rock 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) to the southwest of the modern city.[7]

The city was the ancient capital of the Kalinga Empire and the architectural legacy of the period is manifest. Historical sites in the city testify to the importance of the region during the 7th to 11th centuries CE, when the Kalinga kings ruled Odisha and beyond. The Ananta Vasudeva Temple and Bindusagar Tank is the only temple of Vishnu in the city. The temples in Bhubaneswar are regarded as having been built from the 8th to 12th centuries under Shaiva influence.[8]
Inscription on rock in Brahmi language
Hathigumpha inscriptions at the Udayagiri and Khandagiri caves

On 1 April 1936, Odisha, then known as Orissa, became a separate province in British India with Cuttack as its capital. This date is celebrated as Utkal Divas. Cuttack had been Odisha's capital since the 12th century. With independence in 1947, Odisha became a state. Because of Cuttack's vulnerability to floods and space constraints, the capital was moved to Bhubaneswar, which was formally inaugurated on 13 April 1948. The new capital was built as a modern city, designed by German architect Otto Königsberger with wide roads, gardens and parks.[9] Though part of the city followed the plan, it has grown rapidly over the last few decades, outstripping the planning process.[10]

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